Prohibition has resulted in the loss of at least $226 million per year in tax revenue for spirits alone; Supporters of the ban expected an increase in soft drink sales to replace money from alcohol sales, but that didn`t happen. In addition, “prohibition resulted in the closure of more than 200 distilleries, a thousand breweries and more than 170,000 liquor stores.” Finally, it should be noted that “the amount of money used to enforce prohibition began at $6.3 million in 1921 and increased to $13.4 million in 1930, nearly double the original amount.”  A 2015 study estimated that the repeal of prohibition had a net social benefit of “$432 million per year in 1934-1937, or about 0.33% of gross domestic product. The total benefit of $3.25 billion consists mainly of increased consumer and producer surpluses, tax revenues and reduced costs of criminal violence.  Organized crime gangs illegally respond to U.S. demand for alcohol, earning millions and influencing the country`s largest financial institutions. Huge criminal assets corrupt law enforcement officers, prosecutors, judges, jurors and politicians. Four women drank bottles of illegal liquor around 1925. On March 22, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed the Cullen-Harrison Act, which legalized beer with an alcohol content of 3.2% (by weight) and wine with a similar alcohol content. On December 5, 1933, ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment repealed the Eighteenth Amendment. However, U.S. federal law still prohibits the production of distilled spirits without meeting numerous licensing requirements that make it impossible to produce spirits for personal use of beverages.  Prohibition has been successful in reducing alcohol consumption, mortality rates from cirrhosis, admissions to state psychiatric hospitals for alcoholic psychosis, arrests for public drunkenness, and absenteeism.    While many argue that prohibition stimulated the spread of rampant, clandestine, organized and widespread criminal activity, Kenneth D.
Rose and Georges-Franck Pinard argue that there was no increase in crime during the prohibition period and that such claims are “rooted in impressionism rather than fact.”   In 1925, there were between 30,000 and 100,000 speakeasy clubs in New York City alone.  The wet opposition spoke of personal freedom, new tax revenues from legal beer and alcohol, and the scourge of organized crime.  Today, Americans drink an average of about 2.3 gallons of pure alcohol per year, which equates to about 12 standard drinks per week, about the same amount they drank before prohibition. From 1900 to 1915, five years before the passage of the 18th Amendment, the average adult drank about 2.5 gallons of pure alcohol per year, or about 13 standard drinks per week. Consumption fell sharply in 1916, with the average falling to two gallons per year, or 10 drinks per week. Between 1830 and 1840, most temperance organizations began to argue that the only way to prevent drunkenness was to eliminate alcohol consumption. The Temperance Society became the Abstinence Society. While initially advocating moderate or moderate alcohol consumption, the movement now insisted that no one should drink alcohol in quantity.